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Category: How to Write a Report Page 1 of 4

How To Write A Report: A Guide

Report is a nonfiction story that summarizes and/or presents the facts of a certain event, issue, or topic. A good report will provide all the information that a person who is unfamiliar with a subject needs.

Reports allow you to quickly bring someone to the forefront of a certain subject. But writing a real report is not an easy task. Below we've created our own report to explain how to write a report.

What is an annual report?

Reports are defined in a very broad way: they can be either written or spoken. They may cover any topic. This can be anything, from a testimony in court to a book review by a third-grader.

When people use the word "report", they usually mean official documents that provide the facts and figures of a certain topic. These are often written by experts or investigators. Reports come in many forms, which are explained below, but all of them fit this description.

What type of information does a report contain? Reports, for example, are more likely to include the following types of information:

  • Details of a situation or event
  • A situation or event that has a lasting effect or consequence
  • Data analytics or statistical analysis
  • Interpretations of the report
  • Reports can be used to make predictions or recommendations.
  • Information about other events and reports

Essay writing and reports are very similar, but there are a few differences. Essays add personal opinions to the facts in both, but reports do not. Reports are usually limited to just the facts. The author may add some interpretation in the final paragraph.

In addition, many reports have a lot of headings. It's easier for readers who want to find information quickly to scan through reports. Essays should be read in their entirety, not just scanned for certain insights.

Reports Types

There are different types depending on who and what you're reporting to. Here is a list of common types of report:

  • Academic report:Tests student comprehension of subject matter. For example, book reports, historical reports and biographies.
  • Business reports: Identifies important information for business strategy. Examples include marketing reports, internal memos SWOT analyses, feasibility reports, and more.
  • Scientific Reports: Shares findings of research, such as case studies and research papers, usually in science journals

The way in which a report is written can also be used to categorize it. Reports can be formal, informal, internal, or external. In business, vertical reports share information with people from different levels within the hierarchy.

The writing styles for academic reports tend to follow a formal format.

What is a report's structure?

The structure of a document depends on its type and requirements. Reports can have their own structure but most use this template.

  • Executive Summary: Just like the abstract of an academic paper or book, an executive summary summarizes your findings so that readers are aware of what they can expect. They are more common in official reports than school reports.
  • Introduction: The introduction is the first part of your report. It explains your topic, includes your thesis, and provides any necessary background information.
  • In the body, you will find all of your findings organized into headings. The body takes up most of the report. While introductions and conclusions are usually only a handful of paragraphs long, the body may be several pages.
  • Conclusion: In the conclusion, you will bring all of your information together and make a final interpretation or judgement.

The author will usually add their personal opinion or inferences.

If you're familiar with how to write a research paper, you'll notice that report writing follows the same introduction-body-conclusion structure, sometimes adding an executive summary. In addition to the usual requirements for reports, we will also explain how title pages and table of contents are used.

What should you include in your report?

Reports are not required to follow any specific format. Each school can customize their format according to their individual needs. Look out for the following requirements that tend to be repeated a great deal:

  • Title: In official reports, a title is usually used to organize the report.
  • Index: Similar to books, an index allows users to navigate quickly and easily.
  • Page numberingIt is common to number pages in a report in case you make a mistake or have a mix-up.
  • Headings/subheadings: Most reports are divided into sections with headings and subtitles. This makes it easier to browse and scan.
  • Format for Citations: You can find the format you should use in the guidelines.
  • Works Citation Page: At the end of your report, you will find a bibliography that lists all the sources from which you obtained information.

Always refer to your assignment for detailed instructions. If you are unsure, ask those who read your report for any style guides and formatting requirements.

How to Write a Report in 7 Steps

Let's now get down to the details of writing a report. You can follow the steps below to get from an idea into a finished paper.

1. You can choose a subject based on your assignment.

It is important to select the topic before writing your report. You may be given a pre-determined topic for your report, as is the case with many business reports. You can skip this step if you're not required to.

It is important to choose a topic that fits both criteria. Choose a topic which fits both of these criteria:

  • Adequate information is available: Select a topic which has enough information, but does not overwhelm your report.
  • The subject is something that you are interested in. Although this is not a mandatory requirement, it can improve the quality and effectiveness of your report.

Keep in mind that the assignment's instructions, including the length, are important to consider when making a decision.

2. Research

For both, it's important to dig for sources outside of your company or business.

If you are writing an academic paper, you will be doing most of the research yourself, unless your professor has given you class materials to use. This is why it's so important to pick the right subject. If you choose a topic that doesn't offer enough research, you'll be left behind.

The key to finding reliable sources is to look only at official documents, publications, research studies, case study, and books by reputable authors. You can use the research from other reports that are similar. Search engines can provide a wealth of information, but you can also find it at the library.

3. Thesis statement

You should first write a summary of the report's main idea. The thesis sentence summarizes what you are writing about, or in this instance, your report, just like the topic of a para.

You will begin to see patterns and trends in your research once you've done enough. This thesis statement is based on the fact that these patterns are all pointing to or implying a larger, overarching issue.

As an example, if your report was about the wages paid to fast-food workers, you might have a thesis that reads, "Even thought wages used match up with living costs, they do not anymore." You will then use ample evidence to support your thesis.

You should include your thesis in the executive summary as well as your introduction, but it's important to know what direction you want to take when creating your outline.

4. Create an outline

Reports are organized by headings and subheadings, so an outline can help you stay on track. In reports, headings and subtitles are used to separate sections. A good outline helps you keep track of your writing.

When you begin to see patterns and trends, it is best to start planning your outline. If you are stuck, make a list of key details, examples, and other evidence. If you're stuck, try making a list of all the key points, details and evidence you want to mention.

5. You can write a rough version

This is where the bulk of your time will be spent. Here you'll put the research information in words. Follow your outline to avoid feeling overwhelmed and make sure that you do not forget anything.

Do not fear making mistakes. This is the first rule to follow when writing a rough copy. The pressure of expecting your first drafts to be flawless can add a great deal of stress. Write naturally and relax, and fix the details, like the word choices and mistakes, later. The last two steps should be enough.

6. Your report should be revised and edited

When you have finished writing your rough draft, it is time to start editing and fixing any mistakes. Before you jump back into editing, take some time to relax and sleep on your rough draft.

It is best to reread your report and look for any major problems, like deleting or moving paragraphs or sentences. Sometimes you will find that the data you used isn't correct, or you misinterpreted key pieces of evidence. The time is right to fix "big picture" errors and rewrite long sections if required.

To learn more about self-editing, read our guide.

7. Check for errors and proofread

The final step is to go through your report a second time. This will allow you to check your spelling and grammar. The previous step was to check for general mistakes. Now you want to look for small, specific problems.

Grammarly, for example, will highlight these errors. Grammarly offers a free version that highlights your spelling and grammar errors as you type. Then, it gives you suggestions on how to improve the writing. The Premium version includes even more features, including word choice and tone recommendations.

How To Write A Report For An Assignment?

A report is a complex assignment that requires both academic and research abilities. There are many different types of reports, and not all follow the same guidelines or structures. This can be a problem for students. Many students have trouble writing a written report. There are many criteria set by colleges and Universities for writing reports. This is what determines your enrollment. You need to be aware of your program.

It is important to select students with solid knowledge of and experience in report writing. Report writing requires more factual data than essay writing. For an assignment, the student must use a logical and scientific structure to provide evidence-based information. You want to be distinct?

The main elements of a report format for an assignment

The assignment document is well-structured and concise. It has a specific sub-heading to achieve the primary question. It is essential to make sure that your report layout addresses the main question without making any errors.

Consider the following assignment report elements if you don’t know how to begin.

  • Cover Page

The title page highlights the primary issue or subject of the report. Title page is the first page that students use to create a topic. It should be unique, narrow, and specific. First, you need to decide on a subject. Title page: Include your topic title as well as full name, the name of the university, course/module, submission date and tutor name. Title pages for each report have their own guidelines, and should be adhered to.

  • Summary

A summary executive is similar to a summary report. The executive summary is often added to the report after the cover page. It contains approximately 200-250 characters or a half page. The executive summaries are crucial in choosing the layout for your report. This section will include the purpose and main concepts of the report. Included in this are the data gathering approach, findings and discussion. The conclusion should be a useful and brief recommendation. This summary is a quick overview for the audience of what the report will be about.

  • Table of contents

In your report, you must include a table-of-contents after the executive overview. This is the page where the titles of the chapters and sections are listed, as well as the page numbers. This page will help the reader understand the purpose of your report.

  • List of abbreviations and symbols

It is important to make a list of abbreviations used in writing technical assignments. This list will help your non-technical readers understand abbreviations. This list can be added to your work by following the example in the report assignment.

  • This is an opening statement.

Students have trouble writing their introductions for reports. You must have been told by your tutors that structuring an introduction is important when they gave you advice on how to write a report. The standard introduction accounts for 10% of the total words and marks in your report. This is your foundational work that reflects your topic.

Include in your introduction the background information on your topic, the approach you have taken to it, as well your relationship to other studies. The conclusion should include the objective of the report, and your justification for it. This will help to engage readers.

  • The central item

    Original: The car was going too quickly
    Paraphrased: The automobile was speeding

Any assignment report must have a main body. This section accounts for 80% of the marks you receive. Most students who ask experts online to do their assignment for them are trying to learn the best way to write an academic report with a main body that will earn top marks. It is important to use credible sources of information when completing this section. It is important that you use this method to support your information if you plan on getting a high grade.

If you want to be more specific or clear, you can divide your assignment report by the question or guideline. Some tutors provide their preferred format for the report assignment. Students must adhere to it. You must include a critical analysis and an argumentative evaluation to support your evidence and statements.

You should note that every university and college will have its own requirements and marking criteria. You need to know how to write an assignment report.

  • Conclusions & Recommendations

In the conclusion, it is important to summarize the most relevant information. Standard conclusion is also 10% of the total number of words. It is important to highlight the most significant findings and not add any fresh information or new suggestions. This section sums up all of the information that was analyzed in the assignment report. The audience can then explore the thought. Be careful not to add any new information in your conclusion. This could result in you receiving negative points.

  • Reference Record

    Original: Book
    Paraphrased: Textbook

Referencing is required in every report for academic purposes. It is impossible to avoid the need to understand other people’s opinions and findings, even if your assignment requires you do independent research. You’ll find that when searching for tips on how you can write a report to complete an assignment you need to focus your attention on the sources you use. This is because the credibility of the entire work depends upon them.

The sources of your information should be listed. References must be made to all books cited within the text. Sources are usually alphabetized by the surname of the author. You can take help from the report format assignment if you don’t know how to write a university assignment with a proper list of bibliography/references at the end of your report.

  • Appendices

This section comes in handy if you wish to include any figures, tables or charts that link together, as well as relevant information, but do not want the work to exceed its word limit. Add the appendices below your reference. You can add the appendices below your reference. This part may seem to be separated. You may wonder why this part is separated. Make sure to use this section when creating your report.

Here are 7 tips on how to write a report assignment

  • Use formal academic tone

Reports are a summary or analysis of research. Avoid using academically inappropriate terms by using formal terminology. You must use a passive voice and use neutral verbs. The third-person voice is used for all assignments except reflective reports.

  • Verify the Format

You must follow a certain format for your report to make it easy to understand by the audience. Use simple English throughout. The body can include technical terms or jargon.

  • Prepare in Advance

Identify the target audience and the purpose of the report before you begin writing. After you have identified the audience and purpose, begin to collect information. When you organize your information properly, writing the report will become easier. Choosing the right assignment report format to use is an important part of this preparation.

  • Incorporate Facts

Decide who you are writing the report for and what it is about before you begin. Then, you can compile the data and synthesize it. Using the correct arrangement, you can easily complete your writing.

  • Incorporate Clarity

The majority of tutors will give students low grades because they lack clarity and provide misleading information. This is because they don’t use concise and clear wordings. Use conjunctions, as well as the active tone and punctuation. Ensure your information has been presented correctly.

  • Cite your sources

Make sure you credit the authors of all ideas that are based on your own. When you are finished, make sure to acknowledge the source. Check that the references and citations match.

  • Check and correct your work.

After you finish writing, review your grammar and punctuation. Consider what information you’d like to include. You can expand on a topic by writing concisely. Avoid being too concise as you may leave out important details.

Understanding Preliminary Reports

You finally found the perfect home. Is the home perfect? You’ll be buying more than just an attractive home. You may also have to pay for liens left by the previous owner. Has the property been restricted by documents?

You will have the chance to review your property’s title prior to purchasing a policy. If you do not remove or eliminate any items before purchase, they will be excluded.

California Land Title Association provides answers to some of your most common questions regarding preliminary reports.

What is an initial report?

A preliminary report shows who owns a parcel of land and what liens, encumbrances, etc. are on it. This report is done before issuing title insurance policies.

What is the purpose of a Preliminary Report?

The title company’s preliminary report will specify the conditions in which it will issue the policy.

The report will list, before purchase, all title defects and liens that are excluded from coverage by a requested title insurance. The report will be reviewed by both parties in the transaction as well as their agents.

Consequently, a pre-purchase report can be used to ask for items to be removed that the buyer finds objectionable.

How and when is the Preliminary Report generated?

The title company will receive an order shortly after the escrow opens and begin the production of the report.

This involves gathering and reviewing certain recorded matters relating both to the property and to the parties involved. Recorded matters can include deeds of trust against a piece of property, liens against the buyer and seller for unpaid taxes, court awards or other unpaid amounts.

The preliminary report lists these matters numerically under the heading “exceptions”. The exceptions will remain until the title insurance is removed or released.

What should I be looking for in my preliminary report?

You are primarily interested in your ownership rights. It is important to understand the extent of your ownership rights.

In the statement of vesting, it will be noted the extent, quantity, type and nature of the ownership interest. The highest form of ownership is “fee simplicitas” or “fee”.

The report will include “exceptions”, a numerical list of liens, restrictions or other interests which are excluded. These can be claims from creditors that have liens. You may find restrictions in a previous deed, or in CC&Rs – covenants, conditions and restriction. Third parties’ interests are common and can include easements granted by an earlier owner that limit your property use. It is possible that you do not want any claims or restrictions to be placed on the property. You may wish to remove unwanted items before purchasing.

As an exhibit to your report, you may also include a list of exceptions and limitations that are standard in title insurance policies. Title insurance policies have standard exceptions to cover items that may not be covered by your policy. This section will help you to understand what is not covered by the title insurance, and which matters may be worth investigating.

Does the Preliminary Report reveal the full condition of a title?


You should be aware that the preliminary title report is not an official written statement of the status of a land title. It does not necessarily list all defects or liens that could affect title, but rather identifies the current owners and the issues that will not fall under the coverage provided by a title insurer if the insurance is later issued.

Does a preliminary report mean title insurance?

No, absolutely not. A preliminary report does not contain a history of all documents recorded in relation to the property. The preliminary report is simply a summary of the conditions and terms of an insurance offer, it does not represent the condition of a property’s title.

These distinctions can be important for several reasons.

Can title risks be mitigated before the transaction is closed?

Yes, you can. Title companies protect your interests by issuing “binders” or “commitments.”

Binders are agreements to provide insurance coverage temporarily until a formal policy can be issued. Title insurers are contractually obligated to provide title insurance to real estate once their stated requirements have been satisfied.

Talk to your title insurance provider about the best ways to protect your rights.

How can I remove liens or encumbrances that are not mine?

The report should be carefully reviewed. If the title is clouded by liens or encumbrances, you and your agent will work with the sellers and their agents to remove them before taking title.

For more information on Preliminary Reports, where can I go?

You can also get help from your real estate agent or attorney, if you decide to hire one. Also, your title and escrow company may be a good source.


The most important task in a business that is aimed at reducing risk is the preparation of a preliminary report. This is to allow for the issue of a title insurance policy.

How To Write An Audit Report

The audit report details the financial statements of a company. This report is written in the opinion of an auditor on the audited process. A financial report or process is examined, inspected and evaluated by an auditor or an employee of a company.

Audits ensure that businesses comply with the laws and regulations, and they also determine if financial information is recorded accurately. The audit can help identify fraud and risks. It can help identify whether controls are effective in managing future threats, or weaknesses within the business process.

A good audit report should be thorough and concise. Each section must be comprehensive and contain only relevant and factual information. The auditor may create tables, graphs or bullet-point information when necessary.

How to Write an Audit Report

Each audit must have a set structure. Not only the initials but also the full name of each auditor must be listed. The management's and auditor's responsibilities should be listed at the beginning. It is important to write the actions that were taken during the auditory in the past. The audit report should include the following sections:

  • Scope of objectives
  • Summary
  • Conclusions Original: Utilize Paraphrased: Use
  • Opinion
  • Basis for an opinion
  • Suggestions

Scope of objectives

The scope and objectives can be defined after a discussion between the auditors and business managers. In the audit report, the audit purpose and the extent of examination must be stated. How many years will the files be evaluated? What departments? The auditor may have to confirm the use of resources by the business and review current policies in order to satisfy the scope. The scope and objective of an audit will depend on its type.

For a tax audit, the auditor must make sure that all accounting records and books are maintained correctly. To perform a process-based audit, it is necessary to provide assurances about the effectiveness and efficiency of the business's processes and systems. Scope and objectives may be determined per audit or after the schedule for the audit has been established.


It should summarise the audit report's content. The executive summary is typically 1 to 2 pages long and includes the main sections, as well as definitions. Bullet points can be used to present information in a concise and clear manner. A table could be used by the auditor to highlight important risks and issues, as well as how and when controls should be implemented. Remember that the people who will be reading this section need to have accurate and concise information.

Results Original

An auditor's evaluation will allow them to draw conclusions about the business after they have examined the practices and activities. The findings of an audit could reveal faults in the company, depending on its nature. The audit could reveal that employees are recording unapproved overtime or that internal controls have significant flaws. The audit can reveal other risks like fraud, lack policies and procedures or employees gaining unauthorised information.

Auditors may give opportunities for improvement in their audit reports. These feedbacks could help businesses avoid future non-compliance. The auditor offers ideas to improve the business system and provides a third party perspective. The OFI shouldn't be written authoritatively. Instead, it should describe the affected area and the possible actions.

The auditor must also describe how they came to their findings, the actions taken and the data they looked at. The auditor will also need to explain the findings they made, their actions and data they used.

The auditor's findings can be both positive and negative. The auditor might find that a business keeps proper records and complies with all applicable laws. The audit report opinion will make this clear.


The auditor's opinion is based upon their observations throughout the process.

Auditors can form four different types of opinions.

  • Unqualified Opinion
  • Qualified opinions
  • Disclaimer
  • A negative opinion

Unqualified Opinion

A clean report or unqualified opinion is a statement that an auditor is satisfied with the business practices and financial information recorded. The most common report type, it's the one that companies want because it shows there are no problems with the financial statements. If the bank receives a report with no qualifications, it confirms that all information has been presented accurately. This will increase the likelihood of the bank lending money to the business. The organisation is assured of its compliance and will have few issues. Investors will also be pleased to see that the company is ethical and is a good investment.

Qualified opinions

The auditor's opinion is qualified when he or she is not fully satisfied with financial procedures at a business. The company may not be following the standards set by the country when it comes to reporting information. The audit may have been limited. The auditor may have not found enough data or documents to meet a specific objective.

The qualified opinion is a statement that indicates an issue which may not be widespread, but it could cast doubts on the accuracy of the company's statements and practices. This opinion type is not detrimental to business because it can be changed in the future once the auditor has described the issues.

A negative opinion

A negative opinion is when the auditor does not approve of the financial statements that have been provided by management. The auditors have discovered evidence of financial misstatements and irregular records. These issues indicate that there is a serious problem within the company. The fact that the data is not accurate is a red-flag for fraud in the organization.

The last thing you want is a negative opinion. It can have a detrimental impact on the company, including its outlook, ability to raise money and the ability to attract new investors. The company's reputation, stock prices and morality can be affected by this.


The auditor's disclaimer may be for a variety of reasons. The auditor may not have had access to enough or the correct documents. There are questions the auditor is still unable to answer due to lack of evidence or a company that does not cooperate. It is not a negative or positive opinion. This opinion can be interpreted as a negative one, since it is not a definitive answer.

Investors and lenders may be less confident in a business. The auditee, in certain situations, can sue an auditor who disagrees with his opinion.

Results of a Process Audit Report are:

  • Compliant
  • Minor Non-Compliance
  • Non-compliance with major regulations


It is the same as a non-qualified opinion. It is a sign that all systems, processes and policies adhere to requirements and policies. They comply with the laws and are effective and efficient. It is not a negative to have a Compliant' opinion if there are improvements that can be made.

Minor Non-Compliance

A minor non-compliance equates to a qualified opinion. It is likely that the audit report found minor non-compliance with policies or requirements. A minor non-compliance can be a poorly implemented procedure with little impact on the business and no breach of laws, regulations or standards.

If the audit is related to a certification, then the certification will remain as long as the issues are corrected by the next audit. If it is a certification audit, they will keep their certification as long as they correct the problem by the next inspection. The certification can be suspended, if the company fails to meet all the requirements. This can lead to a deeper investigation into the reasons for the non-conformance and what steps can be taken to prevent it in the future.

Non-compliance with major regulations

A major non-compliance can be compared to a negative opinion. The audit will find that the process or processes being audited are seriously and substantially deficient in comparison to the policy and requirements. Minor compliances can lead to major nonconformance.

A major non-compliance example is when a company does not follow their standard operating procedures in building their products, causing defects and damaging the reputation of their business, or if they violate applicable laws, regulations or standards. If this is a certification-related audit, certification would be suspended until they're rectified. If there is a major problem with the company's compliance, an investigation will be conducted to determine the cause. The company will waste time and money trying to fix the problems and prepare for the next inspection.

Basis for an opinion

This section should state that the review was done in accordance with auditing requirements of the country wherein the company is located. It can also list the responsibilities that each party is expected to fulfill under these standards.

They should also explain which accounting principle applies to their audit. The auditor should describe the accounting principles that apply to their audit. The auditor may also explain the extent to which the opinion was formed, i.e. the documents they examined to reach that conclusion. The auditor must mention that if the audit is external, they are not acting on behalf of the business.


After the audit, management is given recommendations. While they aren't mandatory, once made, the manager must follow the auditor's advice as he or she has already taken a pledge before the inspection. The recommendations are meant to be implemented by the company in order to improve compliance and correct any nonconformities within the organization. The business must act promptly after receiving the audit recommendations in order to make the audit beneficial.

The main objective of the recommendations is to improve and manage risks. Management must not only follow the advice given by the auditor but also monitor their own actions and internal control. It is important to know who will be responsible for the necessary changes in order to improve communication and achieve better results.

The audit report should end with the auditor's name, date of report, and auditor's home address. Reference section is needed if an external source was used.

In conclusion

Only a properly performed audit can produce an effective audit report. The auditor will need to have access to all pertinent files and the appropriate space within the organisation. To ensure that the audit is completed on time, the organisation must be prepared to give any additional documentation required. A good relationship between the auditors and auditees is essential to produce an audit report of high quality. A report on an audit will be different depending on which type of audit is performed. Some sections, however, are consistent.

The business and auditor must work together to get the best results and reduce risks.

An Analysis Report In 3 Steps (Your Boss Will Like This!)

To communicate effectively, you need to know how to write an effective report. A well-written report is free of errors and clear. Begin the report by stating the purpose for writing the report and giving the client a glimpse of what they can expect. Include background information, questions and any other relevant details.

Business-driven Data Analysis for Non-Technical People should consist of:

  1. Simple writing and less technical detail
  2. What you did and how it affected you.
  3. Useful practical recommendations

1. Write your analysis report with less technical information and simpler writing

  • The words should never be replaced by graphs and pictures
  • Do not use flowery language and unnecessary details. Be direct (use bullets if necessary).
  • You don't want to get lost in the process.

2. Your actions and your motivations should be clearly stated

This section is the place to demonstrate your expertise. Use the narrative to explain the answers to the client's questions. Tables should only contain 3 metrics and the data should be segmented rather than aggregated. It is easier to read.

Web reporting is different from web analysis because one is data puke. This image, for instance, is an example of data puke.

It's not the right way… The client must identify the actions and understand the context. You shouldn't make clients think: you should give them insights.

It is not a web-analysis, but a simple analysis of the website. Be sure to note the highlighted sections.

What you MUST do…

3. Applying practical recommendations

  • Write the reasons for each insight. (Sales down 4% since ….) Use "you" to refer to your client.
  • Each insight should be followed by a suggestion for a course of action (For example, because sales are down we suggest Y …). The best way to apply this is after you have a complete understanding of your client's company. A discussion, or at the very least a recommendation should occur if there is no recommendation.
  • If you can, quantify the effect of your decision. (We'll save X dollars). It is important to create a sense that the client must act immediately.

The conclusion or outro should include the report's purpose, main conclusions, findings, and recommendations. The conclusion can be positive. The purpose of this report was to provide a guide on how to write a data analysis. It provided 3 insights with additional detail for each. Report writing should be simple, easy to read, and clear for stakeholders. Even when skimming a report, it should still be able convey its main points.


Many readers have asked about the use of PenPath dashboards in analysis reports. We recommend exporting the dashboard in PowerPoint or using screenshots.


Statistics has changed the game with technological advances. Using it, entrepreneurs, corporations, and large organizations are able to evaluate the audience they want to reach, profits made, product success, etc.

The use of statistics in the academic world is widespread. Students from various fields, including Linguistics or Maths, as well as Marketing, can use statistical analysis to achieve various goals. Writing a good statistics report can be challenging. You should have a basic understanding of math and know how to find data, apply methods, and use formulas. When you add a deadline to the mix, your anxiety levels will rise.

GPALabs is a service that offers professional assistance quickly. But you can do it yourself. It’s possible to create an exclusive, accurate and meaningful statistics report. Are you ready to find out how? Continue reading to learn more.


No matter if you’re a student, a professional or an employee with a full time job, writing a report is a task that requires certain prerequisites. The report can show the evolution of a habit or trend over time. The report can show how sales have increased or decreased for a particular product. No matter what your job or status is, you should always know the topic you will be writing about.

Try to identify keywords in questions. Highlight the words and make sure you understand their meaning. Stats may cover multiple aspects. You may be asked to interpret data, make assumptions, provide arguments, or explain.


Quantitative and qualitative data are always part of the statistics process. Professional statisticians employ them in different ways. Qualitative data, for example, is preferred when a topic is approached in a more unique and creative way. Qualitative methods are not as popular because they’re not representative. They could also make the report too subjective.

Experts often favor quantitative approaches as they are based on data. Researchers can develop hypotheses using data collected and processed. These methods let us generate results using huge data chunks. Quantitative data is more commonly used.

But we’re not saying that qualitative approaches are a bad thing. Despite their subjective nature, qualitative approaches are important in many reports. We still recommend that you have a quantitative component to your project.

Making Your Report’s Description Simple

Many statistics are bad luck. It’s not due to incorrect data, bad methods or poor quality figures. The study is not clearly described. These reports can have excellent, eye-opening outcomes. However, they are thrown away because they did not consider the central aim of the task or the methods to accomplish it.

Make sure that your report is clear about its purpose and the ways in which you can achieve it. Ask yourself these questions before you start writing.

  • What data characteristics will I investigate?
  • How many different types of variables will I be studying? How many variables will I study?
  • Do I feel confident that the variables listed above (and what they are) will suit my topic? What topic is appropriate?

After you have answers, it is possible to create an introduction that will contain important information on what the report intends and the methods used to reach its goal.


The data used in a statistical paper must be accurate and reliable. The data can come from a variety of sources including web pages and journals.

It is important to remember that you should always explain the origin of any data you obtain and how it relates to your project. You should also mention general data characteristics such as objects. Explain which properties of these are critical to the project.

Add Figures

When information is visualized, it’s easier to understand and remember. Statisticians should always include figures, because it makes numbers more readable and easier to interpret. Charts, graphs or tables can be used when appropriate.

Interpreting the Results

Whatever the subject of your report, you must provide results.

The results are not easily understood by everyone. Keep in mind that you will have a mix of people who know the subject and others who don’t.

Use of statistical tools

Statistics has evolved a lot in recent years. These days, Excel is not the only statistical tool available. The latter tool is a powerful way to create statistics reports. If you want to be a Statistician, you should learn the software that is available.

  • R remains the same.
  • SPSS
  • Python
  • Stata

Four Things You Need To Know About The Incident Report In Nursing

Some minor incidents may not seem to be worth reporting, but you must report them as an accident. What is the exact definition of an event that you need to report as an incident in nursing?

It may not seem important to you that a minor occurrence in a busy hospital ward would cause you to stop working and complete an accident report. Then it can become a liability, both for you and the facility. What you need to understand about nursing incident reports:

1. What is an incident report in nursing?

In nursing, the incident report details an injury or damage to property. It is important to complete an incident form if the conditions described above occur at a medical center.

The second thing you should know is what you need.

We’ll create a standard that you can apply to the reporting standards of your healthcare facility. The concept is the same, even if standards differ. Join us as we examine the incident report and learn four important things.

2. Reporting an incident report

Reporting an incident will be a simple matter at times. A patient may slip and fracture their arm. It’s not uncommon for a patient to suffer a serious injury after a simple fall. What happens if a person stubs his toe while using the bathroom?

Reporting many situations may seem pointless. Sometimes, nurses will fear retaliation if there is an incident on their floor. They may be reluctant to report even minor incidents, even when it’s best for them to do so.

How can you tell a serious incident from a minor? These definitions will vary from facility to facility. A team of attorneys will determine what should be noted in a hospital. If your hospital’s policies are a bit lax, we’ll see if our team can help.

We are not lawyers and we recommend that you always consult a lawyer when it comes to liability. We do know a little bit about reporting incidents. A reportable event will meet one or both of these requirements.

  1. An injury is a person’s suffering.
  2. Property sustains damage.

When a person is injured, file an incident report

The easiest way to deal with an injury is by reporting it. This could be something as simple as a cut on a piece of paper. The grey areas are clearly defined and easy to understand. Reporting any injury is mandatory.

By implementing this rule, medical facilities have the best opportunity to catch and correct any potential hazards. A program that reports incidents must be clear and unambiguous. Only then can it improve the quality of care provided to patients.

If property is damaged, file an incident report

You can implement a property damage reporting policy that is similar to the incident reporting in nursing. This means that an incident report is filed if there’s been damage. It is a black-and-white approach, without any grey areas for misinterpretation.

Nothing is too small to be reported. A broken wheel on an IV cart or med trolley or a mirror that was damaged by a patient could all be reported. It doesn’t matter what caused the damage, as long as it is reported.

3. What Should Be Noted

We’ve already discussed how to report your facility without having a concise and clear reporting procedure. But deciding what to say is another topic. Why? What constitutes damage or injury to a person? In some cases, this definition may be ambiguous and cause doubts about whether to report an incident.

You’re always busy, even if you are a nurse! Every minute, there are close-calls that occur in busy wards. If you stand by a swinging entry door, you can witness multiple incidents. There are also safety concerns in the medical facility.

How should an injury be defined? Do minor paper cuts count if they heal within a few days?

It is possible that nurses who are working in a busy ward will avoid reporting minor injuries like paper cut or stubbed heels.

What happens when, six-months later, the patient is accompanied by an attorney who demands restitution because of alleged abuse for a minor incident such as a papercut or a toe-stuffing injury? There may be little defense if you don’t have a record.

It is important to note that you must always file a report of any injury you become aware of, regardless if it’s minor or severe. You’ll need to keep a record of all injuries to protect you and your workplace.

4. Why nurses need to file an incident report

Nurses need to report incidents for five main reasons:

  1. Legal Responsibility
  2. Facility/Organization Liability
  3. Patients and Facilities Enhanced
  4. Improved Workplace Safety Culture
  5. Improved Restitution Procedure

Individual Accountability

Morally speaking, we should ignore personal responsibility and ‘just make the right decision.’ You have to protect yourself in a society where lawsuits are thrown around like candy at Halloween.

It is not something anyone wants to consider, but it does happen every day. In order to protect their own liability, nurses need to fill out an incident report with any events that include property damage.

Facility/Organization Liability

No one wants to lose their job. Everyone wants to keep their job. It is even worse to be blackballed from your community because of a facility’s administration being sued over an incident you did not report. It’s not about personal liability, but it can be.

A strict reporting system for incidents will keep you out of trouble.

Patients and Facilities Enhanced

Safety and operations managers cannot implement new procedures, evolve existing ones, or replace them unless they document all incidents. Documenting the events that led to an accident is crucial to improving a facility’s functions. Everyone wants a more positive working environment. A small improvement can make a huge difference in the life of a patient.

Improved Workplace Safety Culture

If everyone is following the rules then you can easily follow them.

The same is true of incident reporting by nurses. Teamwork is the best way to ensure safety.

Improved Restitution Procedure

Unfortunately, hospitals are places where many incidents occur. Everyday people of all backgrounds visit hospitals. Some incidents happen, such as when a person has their belongings stolen. How will the administrative staff know the appropriate restitution if a nurse is busy and does not report the incident?

For nurses, it is essential to keep track of all incidents occurring in medical facilities. This helps maintain a safe, fair facility. It is important that all patients, staff, and visitors are treated with dignity. This means that they can make a claim and seek restitution in the event of a justified situation.

Last Thoughts on Incident reporting for Nurses

It is best to always complete an incident report after an accident or damage has occurred. A good management team at a facility will promote an open report policy to discourage retribution of any nurses who perform their duties by completing a report.

It doesn’t matter what you do, to be truly protected it is important to submit a factual report without any bias. By completing the report factually, and without bias or judgment, you can be sure that your information is accurate and you won’t create any future headaches.

Understanding The Purpose And Significance Of An Internship Final Report

Completing an internship is an invaluable opportunity for students and young professionals to gain practical experience in their chosen field. It allows them to apply their knowledge, develop new skills, and explore different aspects of the industry. As the internship comes to a close, one important requirement is the submission of an internship final report. In this article, we will delve into the purpose and significance of an internship final report, highlighting why it matters and what it entails.

  1. Showcasing Professionalism and Responsibility: An internship final report is an opportunity to demonstrate professionalism and responsibility. It showcases your ability to fulfill commitments and complete tasks in a timely and organized manner. By submitting a well-written and comprehensive report, you convey to your supervisor and potential future employers that you take your work seriously and can be relied upon to deliver high-quality results.

  2. Documenting the Internship Experience: One of the primary purposes of an internship final report is to document your internship experience. It serves as a record of the tasks, projects, and responsibilities you were involved in during your internship period. This documentation is valuable for future reference, allowing you to recall specific experiences, skills acquired, and accomplishments achieved. It also serves as a point of reference when updating your resume or preparing for future job interviews.

  3. Reflecting on Learning and Personal Development: An internship final report provides an opportunity for self-reflection and assessment of your learning and personal development throughout the internship. By reviewing the skills you have acquired, challenges you have overcome, and lessons you have learned, you gain a deeper understanding of your strengths and areas for improvement. This reflection is essential for personal growth and can guide your future career decisions and development plans.

  4. Demonstrating Applied Knowledge and Skills: The internship final report allows you to showcase your ability to apply theoretical knowledge to real-world situations. It demonstrates your practical understanding of concepts learned in the classroom and how you have utilized them to contribute to the organization. By providing specific examples of how you have applied your knowledge and skills, you can highlight your ability to translate theory into practice, making you a more competitive candidate in the job market.

  5. Highlighting Achievements and Contributions: Through the internship final report, you can highlight your achievements and contributions during the internship. This is an opportunity to showcase the impact you have made, such as successfully completing projects, implementing new processes, or generating positive outcomes for the organization. By highlighting your accomplishments, you not only demonstrate your value as an intern but also provide evidence of your potential as a future employee.

  6. Receiving Feedback and Evaluation: The internship final report serves as a platform for feedback and evaluation from your supervisor or mentor. It allows them to assess your performance, provide constructive criticism, and acknowledge your strengths. This feedback is invaluable as it helps you gain insights into your performance, identify areas for improvement, and validate your accomplishments. It also demonstrates your willingness to receive feedback and grow professionally, which is highly valued by employers.

  7. Contributing to the Organization's Knowledge Base: An internship final report contributes to the organization's knowledge base by documenting your experiences and providing insights into the intern's perspective. This information can be valuable for the organization in evaluating the effectiveness of the internship program, identifying areas of improvement, and refining their approach to future internships. Your report can help shape the experiences of future interns and contribute to the organization's ongoing growth and development.

In conclusion, an internship final report serves multiple purposes and holds significant importance in the internship experience. It demonstrates professionalism, documents the internship journey, reflects on personal and professional growth, showcases applied knowledge and skills, highlights achievements and contributions, receives feedback and evaluation, and contributes to the organization's knowledge base.

How To Write A Police Report

The police report can be submitted by the officers themselves or by citizens (for example, in cases of burglary). They contain vital information for judges, juries as well as attorneys and victims.

Writing police reports is a part of your job as a law enforcement officer. Your job will be easier if you can write a detailed report that explains the facts in a case. A poor or incomplete report may lead to you being accused of omitting vital information.

Your department and you will benefit from a more detailed and accurate report. You will learn how to properly write a report and the importance it holds.

The importance of police reports

It is common to write a police statement after gathering all the necessary information. In court, lawyers often request your police report. It is important because it acts as a document, telling the jury and judge what happened.

A good report from the police can be all that separates a case from being thrown out. The justice system relies heavily on police reports, so officers need to take great care in ensuring that their reports are accurate and comprehensive. It is easier to understand a case with a detailed police report.

How do you write the perfect police report?

A police report's content should be arranged in outline format. You should be as thorough as possible.

This is an in-depth guide on how you should write a proper police report.

The Heading

The police report header includes information about the agency's name, location and contact information. Include your name and the names of all other parties involved. The incident is also described, usually as "theft", "vandalism" or both. Include the time and date.

  • Date: Reports should include a date and the time they were filed. It is crucial to keep accurate records.
  • Title: In the title, you should mention who is reporting. You can use "robbery", for instance, in the title of a report on robbery. The same is true if the report is about burglary or assault. If there are multiple incidents involving the same person (for example, domestic violence and assault), you should use the name of the individual in the title.
  • Officer title: Write the officer's full name at the beginning of your report. This will help you to avoid any confusion. The report will be easier to maintain.
  • Time: Using this will ensure that the date of your report is accurate.
  • Location: The report must include the precise location of the crime. It will be helpful for any investigation that needs to take place at the location. Include any specific addresses or intersections of the accident.

An opening

This section should include the following: This section includes the following information:

  • Reporting the nature of an incident or call: Include the nature or call in the police report. It could be "theft," a "violence" or a "burglary." In a police report, it is important to describe the incident or call as accurately and as completely as possible.
  • When did you arrive? This is a crucial part if anyone ever questions why you were there. How did you get there? To answer this, you need to write it down.
  • Additional police officers who were present: In the event that you are questioned and asked to explain what happened in detail, it is helpful to have a second opinion or source.


You should write down the five Ws plus 1H: who,what,where,when,why,and how.

  • Who: This section begins with a description of the victim, or if they are witnesses or victims themselves.

For example, if a robbery occurred at a convenience store, it's important to include who was involved in the transaction. Next, make sure to list the names of any suspects or persons of interest involved in whatever happened.

  • What: After listing everyone involved in an incident, you must explain what happened in chronological order. For example, if someone is reporting a robbery, you'll need to include who was involved and what happened.
  • Where: Explain where the incident took place in specific detail, including room numbers and landmarks if applicable. For example, the location of a reported robbery could include specifically which door or aisle of a store was involved.
  • When: The time the incident occurred must be included in this section, including specific relevant times. This is important as it will provide a date stamp if any discrepancies or questions surrounding when the incident occurred.
  • Why: This is where you will list what you believe happened and why it happened. This section may also include who was the perpetrator if known. For example, if someone reports that they were assaulted, you must explain why the situation happened. This section of the report may also include any motive or possible intent of the perpetrator if known.
  • How: This section should provide a step-by-step explanation of everything that happened. This will help to paint a clear picture of what transpired. In some cases, it might be helpful to diagram or map out the scene of the crime. Therefore, it is essential to be as detailed as possible when writing the "how" section of a police report.


In this section, you'll need to include your final action if any follow-up details are needed in the future. For example, suppose a victim or witness doesn't have all their information when they leave from reporting an incident. In that case, you will want to let them know that they will be contacted for a follow-up police report when necessary information has been acquired.

Also, if there is nothing else to add to the report, end by saying that there is nothing to report further: This line helps solidify that you have thoroughly investigated your call or the case and reported it to the best of your ability.

Tip: Before you write a police report, make sure you have all the correct forms. Different police departments will have different forms, so you will need to know which ones are correct for your department. If you don't, the report may contain incorrect information and be incomplete.

How To Write A Final Grant Report

We have recently discussed the best way to apply for funding via a grant proposal. You may now be considering writing a grant report once you have received your grant and used it to its fullest. What is a final report on a grant? Why would anyone want to create one? What information should you include? This article will explain it all and provide you with some helpful resources.

What is Grant Reports?

A grant is spent to implement the project. It is not uncommon for a grant to require a report. You may also want to do it voluntarily. There are many benefits of writing a grant-report. You can reassure your sponsors that their investment will pay off by writing a report. By writing a grant report, you can show your sponsors the impact of their support and how it made a difference. You’re also saying thanks for their belief and trust in your project.

In writing a report on a grant you should strive to portray a favorable view of its results. Even though it’s vital to have a balanced report, remember that your grant can help secure funding in the future. Focus on positive outcomes, even if it was a failure. This could be lessons learned, new knowledge or better future decisions.

What should I include in my grant report?

You may be required to follow a specific format for the final grant report if it was part of your terms and conditions of receiving the grant. You may also want to add some extra information, or there may be no set structure. We have outlined a few key points that we know from research and experience are appreciated by funding agencies.

  1. This paper provides an overview of the project.

Your grant has probably been received for some time. You may receive a large amount of funding from your funding agency. Your funding body will appreciate a reminder of your project. Summarize your project.

  • The project’s main objectives
  • Who is involved?
  • Where and what activities are being conducted?
  • Project timelines
  • Highlights or anecdotes that you will remember

The project summary is all that’s needed at this point. Details will follow.

2. Deviations From Proposal

It is an extension of the original project proposal, with specifics on how it may have changed. It is not a project evaluation. The project will be evaluated later. It will include all the information discussed in your final grant report. Remember to give reasons for any deviations made from the original proposal. This will be due to ‘unknown factors’ that couldn’t have been accounted at the proposal phase.

We want to remain positive in the entire grant report. You will undoubtedly see some positive and negative deviations. Try to be measured in your approach.

3. Key Performance Indicators for the Project

We want to dig deeper into the project outcomes. You might have already set up project KPIs when you were preparing the proposal. It’s fine if this happened later. You can still explain the process at this point. This is about quantifying the value that a project provided. You should choose KPIs that are the most important to your funding sponsor. Choose KPIs based on your funding sponsor’s environmental agenda. The KPIs can be reduced waste, lower carbon emissions or less fossil fuel use.

By comparing a baseline state ‘before’ to a state ‘after’, you can show the impact of your project. You should also apply your KPIs for each state. The difference in the state before and afterwards is an excellent way to illustrate your project’s impact.

4. Project Benefits

You can now really drive home how much good your project did. The quantified benefits are important, but may not tell the whole story. Project benefits allow you to describe all of the positive outcomes that have been brought about by the project.

Consider your team’s development, new skills learned or how it may have inspired you to create future projects. You can think about the team’s development, new skills learned or even how you were inspired by it. It is not as important to be objective with benefits as it is when using KPIs. You can explore the full range of benefits that a project could bring, and show your sponsor just how valuable their grant is.

5. Assessing a Project

You should now reflect on the success of your project. Think about the whole project. Include both the good and bad. What you will do differently and what the team and you have learned. Honesty is okay here. You can find positives in these situations.

You may want to structure your evaluation of the project. You may want to divide the project into different sections (designs, methods, processes, etc.). Prior to creating evaluation criteria, or specific questions for evaluation, it is important to divide the project up into sections. You could go even further and test more methods to evaluate the project outcome. This may involve collecting longer-term, more detailed data on your project’s impact.

The evaluation of a project can be comprehensive or as limited as the client feels necessary. No one evaluation method fits all projects. Do some research on similar projects in order to determine what is required for the evaluation. Talking to a funding sponsor can be helpful to understand what criteria they use to evaluate a particular project.

The ultimate goal of project evaluations is to show to sponsors that you reflect on your projects, their results and how they can be improved. No matter what the outcome of a project, if you can demonstrate that you are actively evaluating and learning from these factors, you will gain respect.

6. An analysis of expenses

The major points of a final report on a grant have been covered. You may find that many people are satisfied with the information you have provided, but in certain cases more details might be needed. You can be sure that you have covered all your bases by producing a detailed budget breakdown. Even though it’s unlikely that everyone is interested, the inclusion of this information shows an attention to details.

Assuming you have tracked all the costs, either through bank records or receipts (which is usually the case), we would suggest making a simple Excel spreadsheet. If you have a large grant, it can become complicated quickly. So a high-level breakdown by project would be helpful.

As an extra point, you may want to calculate a return on investment using the KPIs that you mentioned. This is an excellent way to demonstrate that the sponsor receives value for money.

It is okay to include justifications for the figures in your spreadsheet, even though they should be the main focus. It is particularly useful when’surprising figures’ appear that may seem strange to someone not directly involved with the project. The story can be told by the graphs, which will likely support points you have already made.

7. In conclusion

As you finish your grant report, summarize the most important takeaways and next steps for the organisation. The positive impact the project had on the sponsor is reinforced by this. This also connects the sponsor to the human aspect of the project. The final report is a perfect opportunity to thank the funding provider and conclude on a high note.

You can download the guide to our most recent funding opportunities below if you enjoyed reading this article.

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