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Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Skepticism About America And The Puritans

Nathaniel Hawthorne, a writer and novelist from Salem in Massachusetts, was born into a Puritan family that included a judge who presided over the Salem Witchcraft Trials. In his stories and books, Hawthorne drew heavily upon this Puritan background. Hawthorne’s stories show his skepticism towards the Puritans by focusing on the themes of hypocrisy and sin. Hawthorne’s skepticism is also shown in his stories, which show the theme of hypocrisy, sin and corruption of puritanism. He did not trust absolute faith in America in the early nineteenth-century.

Nathaniel Hawthorne skepticism toward the Puritans is evident in his stories through themes such as hypocrisy and sin. The dark side to what may appear good is shown in “Young Goodman Brown”. Goodman Brown is convinced that everyone in town is good. He believes this because of Puritan values. He is confident that his wife, who he believes to be pure goodness, will lead them to heaven after he returns from the witch’s gathering in the forest. Something changes as he departs and reaches the forest. The town has a completely different meaning to him. At the meeting, he finds his wife who he assumed was incorrigible, as well other people from town. He assumes that since everyone has become friends with the devil and is therefore sinful, sin does not have any meaning. Goodman Brown has changed since he returned to his hometown. Hawthorne makes his strongest criticism of Puritanism through this experience. Goodman Brown claims that he has been forced to look beyond the lies of perfection told by his faith. He abandons his religion. Brown is portrayed as living a life filled with anxiety and sadness. The story implies that Puritanism’s internal logic is the problem, as it requires all goodness, or none. One cannot imagine such a life if they take it seriously.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his stories, reflected his doubts about America in the early nineteenth century. He did not have absolute faith as many Puritan believers did. Hawthorne fought for reform in an America that was solely based on Puritan beliefs that there could be no other option than pure goodness. He shows that sinful natures cannot be hidden, even if one believes they were born to live a pure life. He believed that a person could not be perfect at all times, allowing for conflicting beliefs in his richly Puritan-influenced family.

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s beliefs were different from those of his Puritan-ancestry family. Hawthorne drew heavily from history in order to express his skepticism towards the Puritans. His stories show the theme of hypocrisy and sin. Hawthorne’s skepticism towards America was reflected in his stories, as he believed it could not be completely trusted.

The Wizard Of Oz Movie Review

The movie that I chose to discuss is “The Wizard of Oz”. After carefully choosing the genre that this movie belongs to, I chose Fantasy. The scene where Dorothy meets Ray Bolger’s Scarecrow is one that stands out for me. This character sings a song entitled ”If only I had a brain”. This scene is known to all those who have seen the movie, due to its popularity. This scene is also notable because the movie begins in black and white, but Dorothy is still stuck on Kansas. She begins to see color as she moves into fairytale land. Color switching has a very overwhelming effect on its viewers. As per our text, fantasy films are a ”movie that has unrealistic, superpowers characters, and setting”. This can cause a overlapping of historical dramas with science fiction. Fantasy films can be identified by determining if something is scientifically impossible, unrealistic, or real. Fantasy films are a way for viewers to escape reality. They also entertain them. Although a fiction film, a viewer can still take away a real life lesson.

The convention begins with the fictional land of Oz. Dorothy sets out on a quest for the Wizard of Oz after encountering the Wicked Witch of the West. The Wizard Of Oz is a movie that follows a similar path in terms of plot.

The Wizard of Oz contains many scenes in which Dorothy has to overcome many obstacles. These events bring her into contact with three unique characters, the scarecrow tinman lion. To get her home, she must have the brains, the heart and the courage. She meets small people known as Munchkins. This is a pure escapism film where the characters may experience situations or live in a world that’s not real.

Analysis Of Kingston’s Use Of Food In The Woman Warrior

The Woman Warrior is a book by Maxine Kingston that deals with hunger in every chapter. Outka believes that Maxine is struggling to balance her desire for freedom and the need to adhere the the traditional Chinese expectations about women. Kingston uses food to express identity in a new way. While I do not disagree with Outka, my interpretation is a little different. Kingston uses female food struggles to create a common thread throughout the novel. No Name Woman is not alone in this struggle. Brave Orchid also faces it. We can learn about the unique identities of women by understanding their struggles with food. The Chinese food culture reflects the power of each woman.

No Name Woman is unable to control her food intake, which results in her being erased from existence. She will also be left with an eternal hunger, which is the ultimate degradation of power. Kingston states that, from the villager’s perspective, adultery was not a sin in good times. But it became one when food was scarce. No Name Woman is responsible for a famine by creating another mouth to feed. No Name Woman’s adultery is likely to be punished by her husband for the same reasons that her child will bring her down. Women are wasteful, especially in times of scarcity. No Name Woman is crushed by this ideology, just as the Sitting Ghost was pressed against Brave Orchid, “absorbing his energy and becoming heavier” (69). No Name Woman has been left feeling ashamed and powerless. As if she had never existed, No Name Woman “killed her family” and was shunned. No Name Woman can’t cope with hatred towards her and uses her physical body to revenge the village through “spite suicidal drowning” (16). No Name Woman is defeated by village expectations about food and women, which cost her her life and her honor. However, the true punishment of her defeat, her loss in power, continues after death through generations.

No Name Woman’s Village deliberately denies No Name Woman’s life and family to reflect the “crime”. The aunt is sentenced to a lonely eternity of starvation. Kingston describes No Name Woman’s future by saying, “Her betrayal was so maddening that they made sure she suffered forever, even after her death.” She was hungry, and she needed food, so she had to ask other ghosts for it (16). Kingston shows that No Name Woman’s defeat by Chinese food ideology is never undone. No Name Woman’s daughter appears to be a wasteful food item that threatens everyone else in the village. “Could people who hatch chicks themselves and eat their embryos…could they engender an aunt prodigal?” The villagers punish her aunt with the same blasphemous threat, and they magnify it to her afterlife. Her ghost will be as hungry as the villagers imagine. No Name Woman was not punished to the extent that she deserved. Her punishment did not include starvation. What more can you expect from a woman whose honor, life, child and family are destroyed? The No Name Woman’s family refuses to mention her name. Kingston acknowledges that the aunt’s last bastion, her memory and story, are repressed as if she “never existed”. “And I’ve” (16). No Name Woman has no power at all (although most women in China were already weak). No Name Woman is an entity that has lost all power (although the vast majority of women in China had little to begin with).

Fa Mu Lan’s training in survival gives her the strength to overcome hunger. She can repress it, and this will give her the strength to be a woman warrior. Fa Mu Lan is proud to pass on her success for generations. Fa Mulan attributes the experience she had with a vision of golden, multi-ethnic performers to her hunger. Fa Mu Lan’s “survival tests” show that she no longer depends on the Chinese male society for her food. Fa Mu Lang’s mind opens up as she overcomes hunger and the “cracks in the Mystery” widen. She understands that time is “spinning like a North Star”, she perceives how precious equality for all humans, and “how peasant clothes are gold” and can see a strange future. Fa Mulan’s hunger training is over when she realizes her mental strength and power come from defeating the food. Fa Mu Lan’s victory over her hunger opened her mind and led to great insights. This was the first step to her attaining physical strength. After completing the “survival challenge”, she began her dragon training. She “worked daily” to exert and empower herself, including “exercising under the rain”. Fa Mu Lan continues to be a food lover after she has completed her training. This allows her to defeat evil emperors, kill corrupt barons, and even dance in the rain. Fa Mu Lan’s ability to overcome the social stigmas associated with food and womanhood allows her to achieve incredible power.

Brave Orchid wie Fa Mulan has an uncanny control over her food. Brave Orchid however, does not embrace starvation. Brave Orchid, during the struggle between her and the Sitting Ghost declares: “You are indeed a small boulder.” Yes, once I have my oil, i will fry you as breakfast. (71). Brave Orchid does not seem to be fazed by the threat of the beast. She vows that she will “fry you breakfast,” as a statement of authority. Brave Orchid eats anything and everything, including this powerful, hairy monster. In a food fight, who will be the winner? Brave Orchid demonstrates, through her verbal attacks on the Sitting Ghost and her flurry of insults and threats that she can “eat” an opponent even if physically defeated. Brave Orchid explains how the Sitting Ghost was also a very strong eater. This highlights her victory. Brave Orchid is able to defeat the Sitting Ghost because she doesn’t care what she eats.

Brave Orchid’s fearlessness as an eater has not changed even after decades of being a mother. She still controls her eating habits from the days when she was a ghost-fighting talking story. Brave Orchid does not seem to be disgusted when retelling her story about eating monkey brains. She says, “you would have been shocked at the faces that monkey made.” “The monkey screaming was laughed at by the people” (92). Brave Orchid is not afraid to tell her story, even though it seems cruel. Brave Orchid is a Chinese adaptation of a story that was adapted to counter the idea that women were wasteful, burdensome’maggots in rice.’ To claim victory against hunger, Brave Orchid must eat anything and everything if necessary. Eating monkeys alive is not a way to torture souls, but rather a means of finding food. Fa Mulan’s philosophy of not killing animals and eating only roots or nuts is very different. Brave Orchid’s Chinese-American children are taught to adopt her philosophy, even though it is not the same as Fa Mu Lan’s. Eat! ‘My mother would shout, as we hunched over bowls of blood pudding and watched it wobble on the table. Brave Orchid hopes to pass on her food dominance to her children. She encourages them to eat a wider variety of foods in the hope that they can “contend with hairy beasts, whether flesh or ghosts” (92). Brave Orchid’s children are expected to eat everything from turtles to raccoons. She believes the power of controlling the food will help them survive in America. Brave Orchid, the champion of Chinese food, is a fearless, bold eater who eats anything that crosses her path.

Maxine’s relationship to food is insecure, a reflection of her changing identity and power. Maxine considers the Fa Mulan legend, and she wonders, “If only I was unable to eat I would be a warrior just like the woman who drives me.” I must rise up and plough the fields the moment the baby is born” (48). Maxine believes she can “not eat” and is in control of her food. She acknowledges that Fa Mu Lan has the power to control food because she embraces hunger. Maxine, however, is not able to achieve the scenario. She won’t find mystical training in the midst of white tigers no matter how much she looks for it. I was desperate to find a bird that wasn’t common (49). Maxine gives up this dream, stating that she will “rise and plough the fields as soon the baby is born,” revealing her fear of being forced to be subservient to a Chinese woman because they are unable to eat.

Maxine’s attempts to mimic Brave Orchard’s food management also fail. Maxine’s disgust at Brave Orchid dishes such as squid eye, blood pudding and weird brown masses is expressed when she says, “I could live on plastic.” (92). Maxine’s semi joking preference of plastic over her mom’s cooking shows how different Maxine and Brave Orchid are in their view of food. Maxine’s picky eating habits are not comparable to Brave Orchid, who eats anything. Maxine is a picky eater, and her American tastes make it difficult for her to enjoy traditional Chinese food. In White Tigers she would refuse the bowls filled with rice offered by an elderly couple, asking, “Does anyone have cookies?” I like cookies with chocolate chips” (21). Maxine’s taste has been assimilated by her American identity. She cannot inherit Brave Orchard’s powers. Maxine can’t escape her dependence on society to provide food like Fa Mulan, so she doesn’t adopt her mother eating habits.

Maxine may not be able to control or dominate the food she eats like Brave Orchid or Fa Mu Lan, but she has power. Kingston explains that when she visits her family, she wraps up her American successes like a shawl to show that, contrary to No Name Woman’s belief, women are not wastes of food. She says: “I am worthy of the food I eat. Maxine’s “American success”, her literary and academic triumphs, enable her to overcome the stigma of Chinese women being “maggots on the rice”. She declares that she is indeed “worthy of eating” the food (43). Maxine cannot be Brave Orchid because she is not Fa Mulan. But she can still achieve power as Maxine by using her words to tell a story about her life and try to grasp an identity. Maxine is able to control her words to reveal her story. She can expose issues such as gender, race, and the dubious nature an American-Chinese ethnicity.

We understand that the concept of food is more important than just feeding our bodies. Food is both materialistic and elementary. It’s also profound, expressive and vital to cultures. Separating groups from food has a negative impact on their identity. This is why victories against the notion of women as a waste are so crucial, since they give people the power to fill in the voids created by the society’s resentment. Kingston’s goal is to portray a chilling dystopic story by highlighting women who have overcome society’s resentful view of feeding women.

Free Will And Identity In Rosencrantz And Guildenstern Are Dead

Tom Stoppard, who was a philosopher at the time of writing “Rosencrantz And Guildenstern Are Deaf”, wrote this play in 1967. Existentialism is the philosophy of making rational choices to define your own meaning in this world, even if it’s irrational. Stoppard makes Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern the protagonists in his play, and effectively tells the story of their characters. This play concerns two characters who struggle with philosophical themes such as free will, identity, and fate.

Rosencrantz & Guildenstern is a pair of friends who have no idea what they are or why they are there. In the play’s beginning, both characters have no memory of where they were going or what they were doing. They are also confused about their own deaths. Rosencrantz, Guildenstern and their friends are constantly confused. They feel that they cannot make meaningful decisions. Both characters are unable to recall their names, which is a major problem. Stoppard’s concept of identity is reflected in their constant confusion and loss of self-awareness. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s journey shows the importance of chance and the difficulties of discerning others’ true intentions and desires.

It is possible to create stereotypes by naming and classifying others. This can limit the ability of an individual to discover their own identity. Both Rose and Guildenstern do not know their real names. Both Rose and Guildenstern are unaware of their real names. “I don’t forget – I remember how well I used to know my name – yours too, yes, of course! Answers were everywhere. People knew me, and if not they asked. I told them. Rosencrantz tries to convince Guildenstern that he really knows his own identity by saying this. Their confusion and lack of confidence is caused by not knowing each other’s name. Stoppard’s use of two characters who appear to change identities makes him question the concept of identity in general. Players confuse each other and struggle to identify their own identity. Claudius, Hamlet, and Rosencrantz, for example, confuse themselves. Stoppard makes Rosencrantz, Guildenstern more human by instilling in them a deep-seated desire that is universal: the need to understand. Even though they cannot achieve a redeeming end, the audience can sympathize because they vacillate from awareness to comprehension. Stoppard’s plays also question the identities of the characters, and suggest that the self may not even exist. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are both extremely porous. Rosencrantz misidentifies Guildenstern in Act Three when he thinks that his leg belongs to him. Rosencrantz is intrigued but not able to recognize himself when he sees the Tragedians portraying themselves. If it’s not -! Rosencrantz then tells the character that represents him that he never forgets a face…not because I know yours. Rosencrantz misinterprets the character as himself, saying the character has almost recognised him, but it is Rosencrantz. I? Yes, I’m afraid you’re quite wrong. Rosencrantz says: “You’ve got me confused with someone else.” You may think of their name as their identity. This would be the case in Rosencrantz and Guildensterns’ cases. I believe that the name of a human being should not be used as a way to control or limit them. Instead, it should represent their own life. Because they didn’t know their names, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern never had the chance to discover their identities.

After reading Rosencrantz and Guildenstern is Dead, I am convinced that free will in this novel is a myth. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, the characters have limited choices. Shakespeare’s Hamlet doesn’t give the characters distinct identities. Stoppard repeats this confusion throughout his play. When Rosencrantz grows frustrated at not being able to tell whether his name was Rosencrantz and Guildenstern or not, Guildenstern replies that they are “relatively fortunate” because we would have had to search through the entire human nomenclature field, like a pair of blind men searching a bazaar looking for portraits. Hamlet’s indifference to death is the fate of everyone, as this play shows. The trajectory of death seems to override the efforts of every individual. Guildenstern compares the trajectory of life to that of a boat. ‘We may move, we may change directions, but it is all part of a bigger movement which carries us as inexorably along as the current …”. Guildenstern is left wondering what went so wrong when he realized that Rosencrantz was also marked for death. He realizes that what he had thought to be a boat of freedom is actually a vessel of deception. Although the boat can be moved around freely, its destination has been predetermined. This is why it is out of the control and responsibility of the passengers. Guildenstern’s conclusion to the play on predestination and free will is that we are both free in our actions and forced by forces beyond our control.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s story will make you question your own life philosophy. The characters’ struggles with identity and free-will cause the audience also to wrestle with these topics. In my own life, I’ve struggled to define myself and have been trying to do so for most of my adulthood. To find my identity, I decided to use my birth name as a guide to discovering what my true life entails. Guildenstern telling Rosencrantz that “You have no idea where we are standing” in Act Two can reflect the confusion people may feel about who they are.

It is also a call back to direction, and also an expression of the larger issue; that Rosencrantz Guildenstern doesn’t understand motives and forces working around them. It may seem that there is no direction to life, but I think both identity and free will allow us to choose our own path.

The Analysis Of Othello As Tragic Hero

It may start out as a minor effect, but it will always be unpleasant. Othello is jealous, which leads him to want to poison Desdemona. The final events of the fall action are a result of his jealousy, and Iago’s manipulative behavior in this passage. This passage employs a variety of literary devices to guide the reader toward the ending.

The reader can gain insight by using dramatic techniques in the passage. This passage uses dramatic techniques to foreshadow Desdemona’s demise. Othello informs readers that he does not wish Desdemona’s life to continue. Iago saying “And Cassio, please let me become his undertaker is also a good example of foreshadowing. You will hear much more before midnight.” (IV. i., 206-207), foreshadowing his attempt to kill Cassio. The Greek word hamartia for error or fault is also used to create drama in this passage. Othello believes that Iago and Cassio are talking about Desdemona and is finally possessed by jealousy. In response, he swears to kill Cassio as well as Desdemona. It is clear from his first sentence in this passage, “How will I murder him Iago?” (4, i. 167), that Cassio is the one he intends to kill. Desdemona is killed by Othello because of his mistake.

The passage ends with a literary device called characterization. The characters in this passage don’t develop much further because they are still based on their current traits. Iago is concerned about Othello’s well-being when he informs him of the handkerchief. He makes statements that are true of Othello’s views, such “She’s worst for it all.” (IV.i.188), and “O! ’tis vile in her!”. Othello’s traits are also apparent in this passage, including his love of Desdemona. Desdemona may be cheating on Othello, but he continues to talk about her like she’s innocent. Othello, for example, says in Act IV Scene i lines 184 – 187 “Hang Her!” She is a musician who is incredibly talented and delicate. She can bring out the brutality in a tiger! “O of such high and plentiful wit and imagination!” (IV, I, 184 – 187). This shows that Othello’s anger is because Othello believes that a woman so perfect is capable of betraying him. Othello then hesitates before strangling her in later parts of the play. This passage also shows Iago’s deceptiveness. Iago is able to show his false loyalty toward Othello near the end by offering Othello some ideas. “Do not do it with poison. Strangle her even in the bed she has contaminated.” (IV. i. 203-204) This helps him gain Othello’s confidence by saying that “And let me be Cassio’s undertaker.” You will hear more at midnight.” (IV, i. 206-207). Iago’s deceptiveness makes other characters trust him to the end of his play.

Othello’s story is largely shaped by themes. The reader can view Othello in a new light by understanding the themes. Several themes are used to reveal the next events and advance the story. Themes include manipulation, gender, and jealousy. Iago’s manipulation is one of the themes that runs throughout the whole play. Iago has a clever way of using manipulation to make Othello angry. He speaks in a manner that is sure to irritate him. Iago speaks things like, “Did You Perceive How He Laughed at His Vice?” (IV. i., 168),”did you see his handkerchief?”(IV. i., 170),and “Yours By This Hand! Iago says things like “Did you perceive how he laughed at his vice?” (IV, i, 168), “did you see the handkerchief?” (IV. i. 170), and “Yours by this hand!” Cassio’s actions are used to anger Othello, who then says, “I will have him nine-years-a-killing!” (IV. I, 175). The passage also focuses on jealousy. Othello became a tragic figure because of his jealousy. Othello reveals his jealousy at line 196 of the passage. “I’ll chop her into mess!” he declares. Cuckold-me!” (IV. I, 196), which shows his certainty that Desdemona has betrayed him. This passage also has a strong theme of hatred. Othello’s envy turned into hatred as was mentioned earlier. He hates Cassio and Desdemona for having betrayed him. Othello said, “Get Me Some Poison, Iago” this evening because of his anger. I won’t argue with her, for fear her body or beauty may unbalance my mind this night.

Othello’s jealousy is the driving force behind the falling action. Iago’s manipulative speeches and Othello himself are the catalysts. This is done by using literary devices to create the story, including dramatic techniques foreshadowing Desdemona’s loss and Cassio’s injury, character development to make the characters fit the last segment of the drama, and themes to help develop the entire play. Iago was truly blessed with a perfect constellation of stars. Othello’s story may not have been possible without these miracles.

Analysis Of Katharina, The Shrew In Shakespeare’s The Taming Of The Shrew

A shrew was a woman who verbally challenged authority and the “axioms” of male dominance. A shrew was associated with public ridicule and humiliation in the late 16th century. Other ballads depict the shrew’s image as a poor, old and nagging woman. The archetype is altered, though, by Katherine Minola’s portrayal of The Shrew. The Old Widow reinforces it and Bianca Minola blurs it. Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew gave us a shrew who is rich, beautiful and most of all, spirited.

Katharina’s crime against the social hierarchy in The Shrew was her refusal of the dominant male hierarchy. She has an explosive temper which can make men of slow intelligence quake. Act I scene I, she threatens Hortensio, “No mates / Unless You Were of Gentler Milder Mold” (1.1.59-60), with the threat that “To comb Your Noodle With a Three Legged Stool” (1.1.64) is of no use. This brutal treatment raises the question of how much her behavior is due to her surroundings and treatment.

Katharina is not willing to be objectified and sold to anyone. Baptista seems to be a shrewd businessman. He keeps Bianca as his prized possession for the highest-bidder and is eager to rid himself of Katharina. Katharina asks in Act I scene I: “Is it your intention/To turn me into a fool against my friends?” (1.1.57-8). She sees him as a one-minded tyrant.

Katharina’s individuality will never be lost, so she simply started to reject social roles. The stigma of a shrew was attached to her because she refused to accept the role of woman. Her only weapon against insulting indirect remarks were her wittiness and sharp tongue. Katharina shows her vulnerability through Bianca’s interactions. Katharina infuriatedly binds Bianca’s hand and demands to know who she chooses as her preferred suitor. Bianca’s suitors remind Katharina of her demeaning role as the single maid within a marriage culture, and that she will “dance naked on Bianca’s (Bianca) wedding day”, “lead monkeys in hell”, (2.1.33-34)

Katharina thinks of Petruchio in many different ways. He’s her husband, her equal intellectually, and her liberator. Katharina and her tamer begin to develop an unusual relationship when she is brought to a country manor. The deprivation or food is a method of taming.

Petruchio also joins the deprivation. Petruchio is hesitant to call Katharina a tyrant, as she’s not completely beaten. He believes that his behaviour is as ferocious as Katharina and should be softened. Petruchio states “And better that we both fasted / Since by ourselves, ourselves are very choleric” (4.1.161-3). The manor’s strange balance of dominance versus equality is evident. What about Katharina?

She finds some freedom and happiness in the games and exchanges they have, as there is a compromise made between intellectual freedom and obedience. Vincentio, who describes her as “a happy mistress”, says that she is no longer broken. Instead, her spirit has become better suited. Her shrewdness is not who she really was, but an ill-suited phase in her temperament. It’s better to be happy under a king, lord or master than to suffer in misery and despair under a dictator.

The Act V Scene II is a revelation that makes the audience realize who the real shrews are. In a wager over their manhood, men ask their wives to visit them. Bianca, the Old Widow and their husbands refuse to answer the call of their husbands. Bianca’s refusal was shocking. The meek innocent maid had vanished. Lucentio’s money and his manhood were lost, and he was branded a fool. When told about the damage her refusal caused, she replies “The fooler you are, for delaying your duty” (5.2.133). The Old Wife’s refusal could be seen as an example of the conventional shrews in society. Bianca may have been shrewishly warning marriages to balance dominance with equality. Katharina called Petruchio over and spoke to the other ladies about being obedient. She was demonstrating her newly found intellectual freedom and happiness. Never judge a person’s behavior based on the surface.

Works Cited

There is no change in the phrase.

Shakespeare, William. Shakespeare, William. Shakespeare: Script, Stage, Screen. Ed. Bevington David Anne M. Welsh Michael L. Greenwald Pearson Longman, 2006, published in New York. 83-119

The Role Of Class Stratification In Pedro Paramo

In the past, class stratification has been present in all areas, including empires, nations, and even certain groups or regions. In a class stratification, people are divided into groups based on their social status. The result is that they have different accesses to resources. In addition, the way the world is built in the unique area differs due to class stratifications or other special institutions. We can see in Juan Rulfo’s “Pedro Paramo” that class stratification is the key idea behind the construction of the world for some societies. As an example, we can see how land ownerships and absolute power could affect the lower class. Class stratification does not just have one side, it also has many. It is important to see how leaders from different groups can use their power fairly in order to achieve a fair distribution of wealth. Class stratification could be used by the leader in a positive or negative way that will also affect their society.

Juan Rulfo focuses his novel on a man named Juan Preciado. Juan Preciado travels to Comala, the hometown of his recently-deceased mother, to search for his deceased father. First, his writing style is unique. He uses fragmentary narratives in order to reveal Pedro Paramo’s image to readers and audiences. This novel is dominated by the theme of death, both in a literal sense and in a figurative one. The novel opens with the protagonist being asked to locate his dad after his mother dies. Juan’s story is told from the grave of Juan who died half way through the book. Death does not end in this book, as many people tell stories about their lives and communicate after they’ve died. This strategy allows the reader the opportunity to look at Pedro Paramo’s life from many different angles and gain a general understanding of the lives of others. The reader is given more freedom to read the story because of the fragmentary narrative. In addition, all things related to death are dark. This gives the novel a somber and depressing feel. Thus, the main clue given by the author is death. It also suggests that the book’s contents will be negative.

We gradually discover that Pedro Paramo’s image is a negative leader in the world of the novel. In this novel, I’m also focusing on the theme of landownership. It divides individuals into different classes and provides them with different accesses to resources. Pedro Paramo’s greed, ruthlessness and immorality are revealed after we have read the stories of other characters. His humble upbringing has led him to use a variety dishonorable tactics in order to dominate the rental market. He not only marries Juan’s mother for the money, but also kills those who challenge his control. This landlord is a powerful man in the village. He has absolute power. Pedro Paramo is portrayed as a brutal leader in the novel. This is not just because of his access to benefits and wealth, which he needed to maintain status, but more importantly, he can get anything he desires by monopolizing a piece of land. The text says “And yet Father, they claim that the soil of Comala’s is good. How sad that all of the land in Comala is owned by one man. Pedro Paramo still owns the land, doesn’t he? This quote demonstrates that the leader has the power to do whatever he pleases, but his desire for power could have a negative impact on him and could make lower-class citizens feel unfair and disgruntled. The village has a similar world view to a medieval manorial society. Within the manor, the relationship was one of oppression by the Lord and exploitation. The serfs or peasants were also dependent on him. We can see that the failures in Comala are closely related to the absolute power held by wealthy people. It shows the rural Mexico of today under the plantation system. Art is a reflection of life. Juan’s writing shows us that we may not be able to see Mexico’s history, but the Mexican Revolution of 1910 was a disaster for the rural areas. According to this understanding, the world that Juan creates in his novel is hazy and mysterious. It is like a village that is filled with death.

Sarachek s article on Greek Concept of Leadership is a powerful source of evidence for the fact that leaders who abuse power can bring about negative influences in a society and create disorder. Sarachek’s essay highlights the errors and quantities in leadership. This article discusses four quantities that are important in leadership, and how leadership errors can lead to leaders being defeated. The text states that “when honor is abused, it turns into vain pride.” Overconfident men who try to go beyond their limits will always fail. Pride is the result of a misperception about oneself that leads to errors. This quote explains that when a leader misuses their power or authority, or does so for personal gain or self-interest it is bound to lead them astray. The leader would be influenced by pride and take some wrong decisions, including sacrificing others in some crucial points. Pedro Paramo’s mistake is the same as this concept error. In contrast, if Pedro Paramo wasn’t obsessed with power and wealth, he could have created a world completely different. Instead of exploiting lower-class resources, he could have built a village that was beneficial to the entire community. Pedro Paramo shows that a leader who is obsessed with power and status will lead to the demise of the entire country.

Juan Rulfo is a novel that shows how certain people abuse their position to further their own interests. Father plays a key role in deciding if someone is allowed to enter heaven. Father therefore has an advantage. If Father uses his power and authority to make money for his Church, then what’s the point? As a representative of the power owner, Father had the ability to decide which sinners would be forgiven and sent to heaven. According to text, “He laces some gold coins onto the prie-dieu” and then gets up to say: “Take this as a donation for your Church.” “He could afford to purchase salvation. You are the only one who knows if it is worth this price. I, for one, am at your feet, asking for any justice or injustice you may want to grant. These two examples show how Father accepts Pedro’s son’s money as payment to forgive him for raping his daughter. Father would also deny forgiveness to anyone who asked him to do so but did not give enough money. Father was a leader in the village and he failed to use his position and authority properly to influence the people of the village. He didn’t force them to do good things like help others who were in trouble. Even those who do the wrong thing and donate coins or money to the church can be forgiven. In that case, the church could measure salvation by money and it would not be a matter of principle. The village would be in chaos if more wealthy people followed Pedro Paramo’s example. The leaders in a certain area would do the wrong thing because they are driven by greed.

Hierro, in his article “Gender and Power”, provides yet another proof that class stratification is a factor that can influence leaders negatively and create chaos. Hierro points out in his article how the majority of people do not love power as much as they fear losing it. They feel safe when they are in power. The outside resource says, “This is a disposition that will sacrifice anything to gain power.” The only way to stop someone who is obsessed with power from extending it would be to either submit or to create an even stronger one to counter it. This quote states that the desire to have power will lead people to do anything to protect themselves. Hierro further illustrates the ‘domination of power’ that results in men dominating women. The Father or Pedro Paramo in Juan Rulfo can both control others, regardless of whether they are Father or Pedro Paramo. Pedro is a young man from a poor family. Once he got married to Juan’s mother he began to enjoy the advantages of the wealth. But he lost his identity. They also did nothing but maintain their status within the village. Father is required to accept bribes in order to keep his position as a priest. He would lose everything if he left church or the church collapsed. As Pedro Paramo does, he also owns most of the land within the village. That means he’s allowed to do anything even when it is wrong. He abuses power because he is afraid of losing the power he worked so hard to achieve.

Class stratification has both positive and negative effects, depending on the way in which leaders of a society use it. Class stratification has a positive impact on society because it creates order, which is a result of each level performing their duties. Social stratification can also be a positive force in society. For instance, if it is clear that upper-class people have the upper hand in a resource, then this would be considered as an impetus for lower-class people to work harder to obtain the same level of access. If the motivation is in the right place, this will encourage everyone to be more active and promote an economic boom. The Juan novel gradually reveals that the owners of power are not always in control, and have time for a tangle. The last thing that Juan wanted to remember was his time in Contla. He had confessed to a fellow Priest who refused to forgive him despite the pleas he made. We can see that Father also considers accepting the money when he confesses. But he makes the decision to stay in his church job. In addition, power owners are often forced to take actions they do not like. The world that is built under leaders may not be what they want because of many especial circumstances.

Power has been a desire throughout history. You will always have a desire for power, and to climb the social ladder. I used reasons to show how the stratification of society can have a positive impact on some people, but mainly negative. Juan Rulfo, despite being aware that extreme desires can lead to scaring others, still strives to avoid those who might take their power or dispute their rights. Class stratification cannot be defined in absolute terms as positive or negatively. In my entire paper, I try to prove that how leaders use power and rights can make a world progressive or degraded.

Jonathan Edwards’s Influence In Sinners In The Hands Of An Angry God

Jonathan Edwards has been regarded as one of America’s most influential theologians. He is considered one of most influential philosophers of Protestantism Theology. He published many writings that expressed his Christian viewpoints on such issues as salvation, eternity and God’s purpose. He says Christians should not wait to be awakened by Christ before they change their ways and become better Christians.

Jonathan Edwards used this sermon to educate his congregation as well as his followers on the reality of Hell. He believes that God gave humans the chance to confess sins and avoid the wrath hell. Christians can learn through Edwards’ writings that God doesn’t have to save those who don’t make a covenant to His son Jesus Christ. This paper analyzes Edwards’ work, Sinners at the Hands an Angry GOD, in order for the reader to fully understand Edwards’s teachings.

Jonathan Edwards preached Sinners In The Hands Of An Angry God as a response to his observations on the secularization of society. His congregation was warned by him that God was going to punish them much more harshly. Edwards used Deuteronomy 32.35 when he said that people were slipping towards sin. They would then be paying a higher price for their eternal existence. Edwards believes people’s lifestyles expose them to hell’s destruction, which is a place he sees as dangerous and filled with suffering. Edwards believes that a person is responsible for avoiding sin in order to avoid destruction. He warns those not in sin that God has yet to come, and that God is the only thing that can keep them. Those who fall, God will not save them. Edwards claims that God has a vengeance that is unending and can throw people into hell for failing to obey God’s commandments. This is based on the Bible and other Christian teachings. He believes that God punishes only those who are wicked and considered to be enemies of God. Jonathan Edwards believes that God’s divine justice means that sins will be punished indefinitely by being thrown to hell without objection. Hell is perceived as a place to condemn those who violate God’s teachings. Hell also contains sufferings for everyone. Edwards states that the believers will not be condemned at all (Edwards 6). Edwards describes in his sermons the flames that await sinners who fall into sin or disobey God’s instructions.

Edwards describes the hell as a place of lust and greed. Satan watches Christians committing sins on a daily basis. Hell is considered a place full of suffering and violence that will leave you feeling troubled. He wants Christians to be scared and change their lives and adhere to godly beliefs. His goal is to make Christians fearful and change their ways. He uses the example of a stormy sea to illustrate how dangerous it is for people not to change. His teachings urge men to lead a life of wisdom and care in order to enjoy a divine experience with God. Rejecting Christ will lead to eternal suffering and hell. God won’t save them despite the pain they are experiencing. He describes those who commit sins as children of men, who are often mistaken about their abilities. They lose God’s Grace, which is a vital component of God’s kingdom (Edwards 10).

New England experienced a period of modernity, secularization and political activism in the mid-1750s. The real Christian faith had been diluted by many, and people had different views on what Christians should do. People began to lose their faith (Zakai 1) because of this. Jonathan Edwards led other influential evangelists to join together and teach their followers to adhere to true Christian values, or they will suffer God’s wrath by going to hell. His sermons were designed to create tension in the congregation. He would describe how violent Hell was and how God never forgave sinners. His teachings were not popular in many major cities because they contradicted the Anglican faith that is prevalent in Europe. He allowed those who were baptized and not members to take holy communion, something which was unheard of in the major Christian denominations. Sein sermons entitled Sinners in an Angry God have sealed his reputation for explaining how to stay in God’s way and avoid slipping into devilish ways that can lead to severe suffering.

Different preachers might use different approaches to explain and help their congregations understand their sermons. Jonathan Edwards’ use of imagery in explaining hell and God’s vengeance on those who reject his teachings was profound. Edwards warns his readers and audience not to fall into hell by using words which create an image. Edwards warns his followers not to slide into hell by using words that create images in the minds of the audience or readers. The pit has opened her mouth and is holding the shining Sword over them. This phrase describes the punishment that will be given to the wicked, which includes eternal hell fires as well as a life of hardship and suffering. Images are used to demonstrate how God punishes with violence and power. The imagery has been used to show the harshness of God’s punishment for those who do not follow His will.

Edwards portrays God in his message as merciless, unforgiving and angry. He also depicts God to be brutal in his punishments and judgements. Edwards believes that God is disappointed when men do not follow the preachers’ instructions and the holy scriptures like the bible. The punishments for those who refuse to repent and follow God’s ways will be severe (Choinski and Rybicki, 351). Edwards describes God in the sermon as a person who will not forgive those who follow the devil’s ways. Edwards states clearly that God’s mercy is for all people, but he cannot help them when they are caught in the sin trap. God’s unforgiving attitude towards sinners can be seen in the way He punishes His own children for their sins. He continues to say that the people in hell have no hope of being saved by God, as God is not willing to forgive sins if they are repented before death. (Blue Letter Bible).

Jonathan Edwards says that sin is closely linked to hell, since it increases the chances of a person suffering God’s wrath. According to its author, God punishes those who reject his words by sending them into hellfire. Thomas (65) insists on God being more angry with those who do not follow his will. The sermon warns that hell awaits those who do not repent of their sins, and return to God’s will. The audience was scared of God’s judgment because of their understanding of sin. Edward says that a slip-up can happen at any time in a person’s life. It doesn’t matter how healthy or strong an individual is. This encourages Christians to renew their covenants and seek forgiveness of sins in Christ’s ways. Edwards also argues that God never promised to remove any sinners who are already in hell. Those in hell must therefore endure their suffering for eternity (Morelli). This sermon explains the harsh relationship between God’s punishments and those who are in Hell. God doesn’t allow anyone to redeem himself once they enter Hell.

Jonathan Edwards’ works have a significant role in the modern Christian faith. They help Christians to understand God’s nature and his attitude towards sinners. This sermon has changed the way people think about eternal life and helped believers to conform to the teachings of Edwards. It also clarified that God’s judgement is severe, as most Christians believe God to be all-merciful. This was explained by using parts of scripture which supported their reasoning. It has convinced Christians to live a holy life in order to receive God’s eternal love.

Jonathan Edwards’s sinners in the hands of a vengeful God has remained one of the greatest works he produced in describing the fate of those rebelling against God. Edwards’s imagery used to describe the hell caused fear among Christians. It has also played an important role in encouraging them to follow the preachers of modern society. The work of Edwards will have a lasting impact on the development of studies in theology, understanding God and punishments God may impose to those who defy His teachings.

The Comparison Of Two Comedies “Liar Liar” & “A Thousand Words”

Comedy can be used to bring people together and make them laugh. Then they twist it and make it funny so people can laugh and have fun. These movies have a hidden message that most people are not aware of. Jim Carrey’s “Liar Liar”, and Eddie Murphy’s “A Thousand Words,” are two great examples.

The plots of both films are different, but the message is similar. Jim Carrey plays a lawyer in “Liar Liar”, a film released March 21, 1997 by Tom Shadyac. He lies and twists the truth to achieve his goals. In the end, however, he’s forced to admit the truth and can no longer lie. The movie conveys that no one should lie, not even to their family or their employer. The slapstick humor and funny dialogue of Jim Carrey helps them get their message across. But when it comes to the more sensitive scenes, they try to convey through the characters how they feel when they’re lied to, or told the truth.

This film also shows you that it is not a good idea to tell the truth the most brutally or in a hurtful manner. Would you rather be told the truth in a way that you wouldn’t be hurt? Although lying can be harmful, the truth is also sometimes bad. Today, people are looking for the truth without the harsh truth. Strangely, people don’t wish to be misled, yet when you give them the more pleasant truth, they are angry. This movie is a great example of how people should learn to tell the truth and not lie.

Eddie Murphy stars in the second film, “A Thousand Words”, which was released on 9 March 2012 by director Brian Robbins. Murphy is an agent of literacy who will also stretch the truth to achieve his goals. When he lies, a new tree appears in his backyard. Every time he writes or says a word, one leaf falls. If all the leaves have fallen, the tree and Eddie will die. This movie shows how important it is to think before you speak and about who you’re saying it. This is something that your parents always taught you and it’s proven to be true each time you speak without thinking. In the same way as in the last movie, this character also tries and fails to adapt to a new lifestyle. They end up changing their life style and becoming a different person.

Eddie Murphy begins the film by claiming to be a liar. He is also bitter about his father, who has left him a long time ago. However, at the conclusion of the film, he realizes that he was wrong and reconsiders what he had said. Jim Carrey spends the first half of his movie making excuses for his behavior and lying. By the end, however, he finds closure and thinks about what he said.

These films are a great way to learn what to say and how to say. They can also help you decide whether to say something at all. “My brain does not have any heart, nor does my heart possess any brain.” “When I speak what I think, I seem heartless. When I act on my feelings, I seem thoughtless.” – Unknown

Time Exploitation And Exploration In Mrs. Dalloway

Virginia Woolf’s Mr. Dalloway tells a story about the quality, the depth, and the composition of time. Woolf reveals the complexity of the passage of time in her novel Mrs. Dalloway by focusing attention on the struggles of each character to find their own meaning. The entire novel is set within a single day, which lengthens and explores the time beneath the surface of events. Ricoeur defines the dimensions in Woolf’s book as: monumental (or historical) time is determined “by figures of authority or power”; “clock” time is experienced by characters through their own actions (such as buying flowers, going to the park), and “individual reflection” is used by characters as they explore the depths of the past. Woolf creates a complex network of time dimensions that interact with one another to create Mrs. Dalloway’s narrative.

Woolf’s characters oscillate between time dimensions, creating a “temporal deepening” of experience, memory, and reflection. Clarissa Dalloway, in the novel, is compelled to act out her thoughts and memories. This includes buying flowers, fixing her dress, and speaking with Peter Walsh. This parallel process is evident from the first words of the book: “Mrs. Dalloway claimed that she’d buy the flower herself. Lucy was going to have a lot of work. Clarissa is thinking and making a statement. This moment is a combination of two different experiences. Clarissa will “buy flowers herself”, but there is also the thought that accompanies her words. Clarissa’s thoughts about Lucy are a reflection upon the actions she has taken. Clarissa is experiencing two dimensions of the time in this moment.

Woolf then adds a layer of depth in the sentences following: “And Clarissa thought, what a fresh morning, like one issued to children playing on the beach…For this had always been the case for her when…she smashed open the French Windows and plunged Bourton in to the open air.” Clarissa reflects back to the past as she considers her present actions and thoughts. Ricoeur says that this gives the novel depth. The reader is pulled into the past even as events take place and actions continue in the current. This brings to light the inner turmoils, complexities, and conflicts of every action. Time is more than what it seems because thoughts and memories are constantly running in the background.

Woolf’s characters struggle with monumental time, just as they do to understand its constraints. Ricoeur describes monumental history as a secretion (or expression) of monumental time. As a result of the summation and accumulation of experience, clock time advances. Clock time advances as a summation of individual experience.

Clarissa struggles to reconcile the personal events she has experienced with this historic time. She races the clock to find meaning for her life despite it appearing empty. Clarissa is punctuated throughout the day by the bells from Big Ben. Clarissa is struck by “…a sense of solemnity or hush before Big Ben strikes. The conflict in Mrs. Dalloway is that the ticks and tocks of Big Ben show her age, but her memories and thoughts still seem youthful. She feels “very old, and yet, incomprehensibly young,” worrying that her life’s natural end is close, but still confident. She wonders often what she would do “…if her life could be relived …” Clarissa is lost in the present, a victim to time’s relentless advance.

Septimus has to fight monumental time in parallel. Both He and Clarissa must decide how to navigate monumental time. Clarissa encounters monumentality through the hourly strikes from Big Ben. Septimus is confronted by it when it takes the form of WWI and Dr. Bradshaw. Septimus’s death is a torture for him. Septimus, though they were friends, was indifferent to Evans’ death. Far from feeling any emotion, or realizing that a friendship had ended, he instead congratulated his self for being so numb.

He feels guilty for not feeling sad when his friend died. Septimus is constantly repeating that he cannot feel. His brain must be perfect, so it’s the world’s problem that he can’t. He feels bad for not feeling sorrow when his close friend died. This guilt prevents him from moving forward. Ricouer’s monumental period is once again in play. Septimus feels tormented by the world but is really being tortured by figures of power. Septimus is reminded of his friend’s death by strangers and the car backfire. His friend was killed in the war, and his ability of feeling remorse was taken away. Now, time has made him a prisoner, constantly reminding him about his loss.

The word ‘time,’ split the husk. It poured all its riches onto him. And from his mouth, words that are hard, white and indestructible, fell, as if they were shavings off a plane. He belted out a tune. Evans replied from behind a tree.

Septimus shouted, “For God’s Sake don’t Come!” Because he couldn’t look at the dead.

He feels tortured by the passing of time as it displays his ghosts everywhere. Septimus demonstrates how time can make him mad. His inability in dealing with his loss is reinforced by the figures in monumental time. This makes him unable of finding meaning in the universe.

Woolf’s characters struggle with the tension they experience between monumentality of time and their own personal meaning. Anyone who wishes to be content must overcome this tension. Septimus and Mrs. Dalloway are both characterized by their struggle to overcome this tension. Clarissa overcomes her disorientation through the beauty of the moment: “these Flowers,” “[t]his Moment of June”. She returns to the belief that beauty and meaning are not found in others’ approval, but rather in her own simple pleasures. Septimus does not achieve this clarity. He thinks that his only option is to “…escape and go to Italy (or anywhere else) without telling Holmes. This is impossible. Septimus recognizes he won’t triumph in the end. He exclaims, “So they were in his power!” Just before he throws him out of the windows, he tells himself. Holmes and Bradshaw had him! Septimus has won the contest. Clarissa, too, triumphs. Peter Walsh, Clarissa’s first love, says, “For that she was.” Clarissa, on the other hand, continues living and tries to find meaning to life. Septimus commits suicide to escape this monumental time.

Do all these struggles to find a way to reconcile monumental and personal time, to understand the hidden meanings behind the “clock-time” surface actions, to explore the ways that memory influences thought in order to affect character behaviour, lead to a singular experience of time, or not? The opposite is true; the novel’s experience of time is complex and multidimensional, not singular. But monumental time and clock time are also interconnected with memory, thought, personal experience, and even the characters themselves. Woolf reinterprets time as a complex, interwoven system that gives a humanistic view of humanity. Woolf believes that people’s actions may not be the best way to see them, but that they are made up of many thoughts, feelings, and memories. Septimus’ fate is not to be judged. It should instead be seen as a victim of a rapidly advancing world.


Ricoeur, Paul. Time and Narrative: Vol. Two. Kathleen Translated the French version.

McLaughlin, David Pellauer. The University of Chicago Press published a book in 1985 in Chicago.

Woolf, Virginia et al. The Mrs. Dalloway reader Francine Prose, ed. Harcourt Inc. published a book in New York in 2003.

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